Biology Education

Publications (See also Cognitive Studies of Science Learning)

In Journals

  • Haydock, K. (2014). An Analysis of the Treatment of Evolution by Natural Selection in NCERT Textbooks. Voices of Teachers and Teacher Educators. Vol 2.
  • Vijapurkar, J. and Konde, P (2014). “Omne Vivum Ex Vivo”? A Study of Middle School Students’ Explanations of the Seemingly Sudden Appearance of Some Life Forms Research in Science Education March 2014 DOI 10.1007/s11165-014-9406-1
  • Arunan, M.C., & Nagarjuna G. (2013). Simple systems and sophisticated questions: The scientific legacy of Obaid Siddiqi. Annals of Neurosciences, 20(4). 131-132.
  • Vijapurkar, J., Kawalkar, A. and Nambiar, P. (2013). What do cells really look like? An inquiry into students' difficulties in visualising a 3-D biological cell and lessons for pedagogy, Research in Science Education, published online October, DOI 10.1007/s11165-013-9379-5 (
  • Shome, S.(2014). Teaching “species” in class VIII. Teacher Plus. 12(2), 21-23.
  • Vartak, R., Ronad, A.and Ghanekar, V. (2013) Enzyme Assay: An Investigative Approach to Enhance Science Process Skills, Journal of Biological Education, (in press).
  • Kharatmal, M. (2009): Concept Mapping for Eliciting Students’ Understanding of Science. Indian Educational Review. 45(2), pp.31-43, 2009.

  • Mathai, S. and Ramadas, J. (2009) Visuals and visualisation of human body systems. Internal Journal of Science Education, Vol 31(3), Special Issue on "Visual and Spatial Modes in Science Learning", pp. 431-458.
  • Bardapurkar, A. (2008): “Do Students See the “Selection” in Organic Evolution? A Critical Review of the Causal Structure of Student Explanations”. Evolution: Education and Outreach 1(3), 299-305.
  • Vartak, R. (2006) Photosynthesis in plants with non-green leaves, Journal of Biological Education, 40(4).
  • Pathak, S., Mahajan, B. S., and Akolkar, A. ( 2002) Onion as an educational tool for phylogenetic studies: Molecular analysis and a new phylogeny? Resonance, 7(3), pp. 66-79.
  • Vartak, R. (2001) Chromatography - An Educational Tool, Resonance 6, pp. 83-91.
  • Mahajan, B. S. (2000) Biology Olympiad Programme in India, Current Science, 79(8), pp. 1058-1061.
  • Mahajan, B. S. and Chunawala, S. (1999) Indian Secondary Students' Understanding of Different Aspects of Health, International Journal of Science Education, 21 (11), 1155-1168.
  • Mahajan, B. S., Rajadhyaksha, M. (1998) Biological Evolution, Resonance, 3(9), pp. 74-80.
  • Ramadas, J. and Nair, U. R. (1996). The Systems Concept as a Tool in Understanding Ideas about the Digestive System, International Journal of Science Education, 18 (3), 355-68.
  • Mahajan, B. S. (1992) Understanding of Evolution, Biology Education.


In Books

  • Nagarjuna, G. (2014). Towards a Model of Life and Cognition. In Foundations of  Science edited by B. V. Srikantan, Ed. Centre for Studies in Civilizations, vol 13(5), (pp. 647–691).
  • Srivastava, A., and J. Ramadas (2013). Analogy and gesture for mental visualization of DNA structure. In Treagust, D.F. & Tsui, C.-Y. (Eds.), Multiple Representations in Biological Education, pp.311-329, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
  • Deshmukh N. (2012). Designing and Field  Testing of Remedial Material to Rectify Students' Misconception In Biology at The Secondary School Level, Biology Education for Social and Sustainable Development, Published by Sense Publishers, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 259-270.
  • Kharatmal, M. & Nagarjuna, G. (2010). Introducing rigor in concept maps. In M. Croitoru, S. Ferre, and D. Lukose (Eds.), In Conceptual Structures: From Information to Intelligence, ICCS 2010, LNAI 6208, pp. 199-202, Springer Verlag 2010.
  • Nagarjuna G. (2009)  Tracing the Biological Roots of Cognition, in N.S. Rangaswamy (Editor) Life and Organicism, Volume XII Part 6, History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, Centre for Studies in Civilizations, New Delhi.
  • Mathai, S. and Ramadas, J. (2006) The visual and verbal as modes to express understanding of the human body, In D. Barker-Plummer, R. Cox and N. Swoboda (Eds.): Diagrammmatic Representation and Inference, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, LNAI 4045 (pp. 173-175).  Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.



  • Deshmukh, N. D., Lale, V. D., Pradhan, H. C. and others. (2011) Kumar Vishwakosh (Junior Science) Biology and Environment - Part I (Marathi), Maharashtra Rajya Vishwakosh Nirmiti Mandal.
  • Vartak, R. and Ronad, A.  (2011) Indian National Biology Olympiad- Theory Papers (2002-2004), HBCSE, Mumbai.
  • Vartak, R. and Ronad, A. (2011) Indian National Biology Olympiad- Theory Papers (2005-2007), HBCSE, Mumbai.
  • Ronad, A., Mahajan B. S. and Dureja, A. (2008). (Tr. Abu Omamah, Ed. Mohd Azam) AIDS: Aapke sawaalon ke jawab, Aligarh: Centre for Promotion of Science, Aligarh Muslim University.
  • Deshmukh, Narendra D. and Agarkar S. C. (2007) Krutipradhan Vidnyan Adhyapan (Jaivik Vidnyan) (in Marathi), March 2007, HBCSE, TIFR, Mumbai.
  • Mahajan, B. S. and Nair, S.  (2004) War against communicable diseases: We can win it: a booklet based on the mobile exhibition on Health, HBCSE, Jan-2004.
  • Mahajan, B. S. and Nair, S. (2003) Health and Environment: Action-based Learning (HEAL): Protocol Guide, HBCSE, October 2003
  • Dureja, A. and Mahajan, B. (2001): Answering your questions about AIDS, a booklet by HBCSE, Mumbai. 

Ph.D. Theses

  • Narendra Deshmukh. A Study of Students'  Misconceptions in Biology at Secondary School Level and Development of Remedial Research Based Material. November 2012, Mumbai University

In Proceedings

  • Srivastava, A., Srivastava, N., & Chandrasekharan, S. (2014). Measure conceptmapping, not concept-maps: Procedural analysis elucidates stages in students'  understanding of biology concepts. In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). Philadelphia, USA.
  • Ghumre, S., Nagarjuna G. & M. C. Arunan (2013). Collaborative Undergraduate Biology Research: Re-structuring Undergraduate Biology Education in  India. In Nagarjuna G. A. Jamakhandi, & E. Sam (Eds.) Proceedings of epiSTEME-5: International Conference to Review Research on Science, Technology and  Mathematics Education. pp. 328-335, Margao, India: Cinnamonteal Publishing.
  • Haydock, K. (2013). Teaching and Learning about Evolution and Natural Selection: Problems and Solutions, In Nagarjuna G., Jamakhandi, A. and Sam, E. (eds.)  epiSTEME 5 International Conference to Review Research on Science, Technology and Mathematics Education, Conference Proceedings. India: Cinnamonteal
  • Kharatmal, M. & Nagarjuna, G. (2013): Representing Change Using Concept Maps. In G. Nagarjuna (Eds.) Proceedings of epiSTEME 5 -- International Conference to Review Research on Science, Technology and Mathematics Education, p. 124-131. India: Cinnamonteal.
  • Deshmukh, N. and Deshmukh, V. (2011) Textbook: A Source of Misconceptions at the Secondary School Level. In S. Chunawala & M. Kharatmal (Eds.) Proceedings of epiSTEME 4 -- International Conference to Review Research on Science, Technology and Mathematics Education, p. 144-149. India: Macmillan.
  • Kharatmal, M. & Nagarjuna, G. (2011):  An Analysis of Growth of Knowledge Based on Concepts and Predicates---A Preliminary Study. In S. Chunawala & M. Kharatmal (Eds.) Proceedings of epiSTEME 4 -- International Conference to Review Research on Science, Technology and Mathematics Education, p. 144-149. India: Macmillan.
  • Kawalkar, A. and Vijapurkar J. (2009) What do cells really look like? Confronting children's resistance to accepting a 3-D model. In K. Subramaniam and Majumdar, A. (Eds.), epiSTEME 3, Proceedings of International Conference to Review Research on Science, Technology and Mathematics, Education, HBCSE, Mumbai, India, Jan 2009.
  • Kharatmal, M. & Nagarjuna, G. (2009): Refined Concept Maps for Science Education: A Feasibility Study   In K. Subramaniam & A. Majumdar (Eds.) epiSTEME 3 Third International Conference on Review of Science, Technology and Mathematics Education. Mumbai: MacMillan Publishers Ltd.
  • Mathai, S. and Ramadas, J. (2007). Visualising structure and function of the digestive system. Abstract for Gordon Research Conference on Visualisation in Science and Education
    Bryant University, Rhode Island, U.S.A., July 1-6.
  • Kharatmal, M. & Nagarjuna, G. (2006): A Proposal To Refine Concept Mapping for Effective Science Learning  In A. Canas,  J. Novak, (Eds.) Concept Maps: Theory, Methodology, Technology. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Concept Mapping. San Jose, Costa Rica.
  • Bardapurkar, A. S. (2005a): Understanding Natural Selection via Variation and Artificial Selection. A paper presented at Eighth International History, Philosophy, Sociology & Science Teaching Conference, July 15 to July 18, 2005, University of Leeds, England.
  • Deshmukh, N. D. & Agarkar, S. C. (2005) Students’ Perceptions on Cloning and Biotechnology: A study of Indian School Students, In Proceedings of the Fifth Comparative Education Society of Asia Biennial Conference, UKM, Malaysia.
  • Deshmukh, N. D. &  Garode, A. M. (2005) Implementing Water and Sanitation Hygiene Education: Promotion through School Educations, In Proceedings of the First Peoples Education Congress,Allahabad.
  • Deshmukh, N. D. & Sonavane, V. C. (2005) Need of Understanding the Physics involved in Compound Microscope for its Effective Utilization at School Level, In Proceedings of the National Teachers Science Conference, NTSC, Mysore.
  • Deshmukh, N. D. &  Garode, A. M. (2005) Role of Physical Science in Bio-instrumentation and Techniques in Study of Glamorous Subjects: Microbiology, Biochemistry & Health Care, In Proceedings of National Teachers Science Conference, NTSC, Mysore.
  • Deshmukh, N.D. and Agarkar, S. C. (2004). Study of Students’ Ideas about Nature, In Gr. Makrides, A. Gagatsis and K. Nicolaou (Eds.)Proceedings of the CASTME International Conference on Linking Science, Mathematics and Technology Education and Their Relevance, Cyprus Mathematics Society, 2004.
  • Kharatmal, M. & Nagarjuna, G. (2004): Understanding Science Through Knowledge Organizers. In J. Ramadas & S. Chunawala (Eds.) epiSTEME 1 First International Conference on Review of Science, Technology and Mathematics Education. Mumbai: HBCSE.
  • Thulasidas, S. & Nagarjuna G. (2002): A Methodology for the Analysis of Biological Knowledge Base, Conference Proceedings of ICSTME for Human Development, HBCSE Mumbai.
  • Natarajan, C., Chunawala, S., Apte, S., & Ramadas, J. (2002) Lessons for Teaching Botany: What Middle School Students Know about Plants, Proceedings of the 10th IOSTE SIMPOSIUM, Foz do lguacu, Parana, Brazil, July 28 - August 2.
  • Chunawala, S., Natarajan, C., & Ramadas, J. (1999) Indian Students' Ideas about Living and Non-living: a cross cultural study, IOSTE- 9, Symposium of the International Organisation of Science and Technology Education, Durban, South Africa, pages 96-1 04,June 24 to July 2, 1999.


 Popular Articles

  • Haydock, K. (2012). Inka vikas kaise hua? (in Hindi), Chakmak, (a) Bhag 1, November 2011, pp. 36-37; (b) Bhag 2, December 2011, pp. 34-35; (c) Bhag 3, January 2012, pp. 37-39; (d) Bhag 4 February 2012, pp. 22-23.