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Prajakt Pande



I work at the interface between cognitive science, science education and technology. I am interested in understanding the cognitive mechanisms underlying representational competence (RC) in science (and mathematics). RC in brief refers to the ease of generating and simultaneously working with multiple representations (such as equations, graphs, molecular diagrams, animations, simulations, phenomenological experiences, observations, etc.) while studying worldly phenomena. Generating multiple representations and working with them involves creating interconnections and performing mental transformations among those representations. I am also interested to know how this RC develops over time in the process of learning.


I have been using eye-tracking (static and glasses). In a Design-Based-Research (DBR) mode, I have also been involved in the design and development and testing of fully manipulable new-media interfaces (such as gesture based Kinect sensors, leap motion) as pedagogical interventions to enhance science learning. The interface designs are based on findings and suggestions from the embodied & distributed cognition approaches to learning.

Tentative Title of my thesis: Representational competence in chemistry across groups with varying academic exposure: investigations using eye-tracking



Distributed, situated, and embodied cognition perspectives

Common coding theory and simulation (as a cognitive mechanism)

Multiple external representations (MERs), dynamics and imagination

Neural networks as a powerful perspective towards mind

Chemistry education


Courses Taught:

  1. Child Development, Cognition & Learning (as a visiting faculty at the Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai)
  2. Advanced Course in Cognition (as a TA at HBCSE, TIFR, Mumbai)
  3. Introduction to Cognition (as a TA at HBCSE, TIFR, Mumbai)

Consultancy and Collaboration (Academic/Research)


1. Visiting Scientist - Summer 2015 (University of Massachusetts, Boston, USA)

Conceptual Fluency, Conceptual Change, Eye-tracking


2. Visiting Faculty - Summer 2015 (Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India)

Child Development, Cognition & Learning


3. Consulting Member - 2012-present (The Learning Sciences Research Group, HBCSE, TIFR)

Intervention Design and Testing, Eye-tracking


Publications (Refereed papers)


1. Pande, P., & Chandrasekharan, S. (2016): Representational competence: towards a distributed and embodied cognition account, Studies in Science Education, 53 (1), 1-43. UK:Routledge. DOI: 10.1080/03057267.2017.1248627


2. Pande, P., & Sevian, H. (2016). Switching Between Probabilistic and Deterministic Mental Models of Molecular Dynamics: A Case of Conceptual Fluency, In Looi, C, Polman, J., Cress, U., & Reimann, P., Proceedings of 12th International Conference of the Learning Sciences, (2) pp. 898-901, Singapore.


3. Chandrasekharan, S., Date, G., Pande, P., Rahman, J., Shaikh, R., Srivastava, A., Srivastava, N., & Agarwal, H., (2015). Eye to I: Males Recognize Own Eye Movements, Females Inhibit Recognition, In Noelle, D. C., Dale, R., Warlaumont, A. S., Yoshimi, J., Matlock, T., Jennings, C. D., & Maglio, P. P. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 37th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

4. Pande, P., Shah, P. & Chandrasekharan, S. (2015). How do experts and novices navigate chemistry representations – an eye tracking investigation, In S. Chandrasekharan, S. Murthy, G. Banarjee, & A. Muralidhar (Eds.), Proceedings of EPISTEME-6 (pp. 102-109), HBCSE-TIFR, Mumbai, India.


5. Pande, P., & Chandrasekharan, S. (2014) Categorization Of Multiple External Representations By Chemistry Undergrads: An Eye-Tracking Study, In Y.-J. Lee, N. T-L. Lim, K. S. Tan, H. E. Chu, P. Y. Lim, Y. H. Lim, & I. Tan (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Science Education Conference 2014 (pp. 1393-1415). NIE-Singapore.


6. Pande, P., & Chandrasekharan, S. (2014) Integration of multiple external representations in chemistry: a requirements gathering study, In C.-C. Liu, Y. T. Wu, T. Supnithi, T. Kojiri, H. Ogata, S. C. Kong & A. Kashihara (Eds.). Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computers in Education (pp. 732-737). Japan: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education.


7. Kothiyal, A., Majumdar, R., Pande, P., Agarwal, H., Ranka, A., & Chandrasekharan, S. (2014) How Does Representational Competence Develop? Explorations Using a Fully Controllable Interface and Eye-tracking, In C.-C. Liu, Y. T. Wu, T. Supnithi, T. Kojiri, H. Ogata, S. C. Kong & A. Kashihara (Eds.). Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computers in Education (pp. 738-743). Japan: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education.

8. Pande, P., & Chandrasekharan, S. (2014) Eye-tracking in STEM education research: limitations, experiences and possible extensions, In Kinshuk & Murthy, S. (Eds.), Proceedings of The 6th IEEE International Conference on Technology for Education (pp. 116-119). T4E 2014 Kerala.


9. Majumdar, R., Kothiyal, A., Pande, P., Agarwal, H., Ranka, A., Murthy, S., & Chandrasekharan, S. (2014) The enactive equation: exploring how multiple external representations are integrated, using a fully controllable interface and eye-tracking, to appear in the Proceedings of The 6th IEEE International Conference on Technology for Education, Kerala.

10. Pande, P., & Ramadas, J. (2013). Students’ Measurement Experiences and Responses to Length Comparison, Seriation and Proportioning Tasks. In Nagarjuna G., Arvind Jamakhandi, and Ebie M. Sam (Eds.) Proceedings of epiSTEME - 5, pp. 145 - 151. Mumbai: HBCSE, TIFR.

11. Pande Prajakt P., Yadav Jay Kant, N. Chandini & Chauhan Jyoti Bala (2010) “Counteraction of sucrose-ethanol induced aggregation of protein” Protein and Peptide Letters, Volume 17, Number 12, December 2010 , pp. 1542-1546(5).

Recent Awards

1. International Society of the Learning Sciences (ISLS) Travel Scholarship Award – 2016, 12th International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS) 2016, NIE, Singapore.

2. Asia Pacific Society for Computers in Education (APSCE) Merit Scholarship Award 2014 (winner-2014)

3. IEEE Grant, The 6th IEEE International Conference on Technology for Education (winner-2014)

4. National Student Contest on Technology for Education at The 6th IEEE International Conference on Technology for Education (winner-2014)

5. Springer Best Paper Award, International Science Education Conference, NIE, Singapore (finalist -2014)

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