In secs. and we saw non-individualistic conceptions as a response to the dilemma of propositional attitudes. Need for a level of analysis higher than representational level (Marr and Dennett did not mention the cultural/ sociological level - sec. ).
In secs. and we mentioned situated cognition as a response to the problems thrown up by the classical symbolic-computation approach and thus as an example of a distributed/ bottom-up approach to cognition. Specifically, SitCog rejects symbolic AI's:
Philosophical arguments for situatedness were first made by Wittgenstein (Philosophical Investigations, 1958) and Heidegger (). In the Anthropology context by Geertz, + sociology, critical theory, political science, AI.
Linking of social, behavioural/psychological and neural perspectives of knowledge - providing a broader context to understand learning and cognition (W.J. Clancey, 1993 (Cognitive Science spl issue), 1997 (SitCog - book)).
Example of social/cultural perspective: ability to solve formally identical problems in mathematics or in naturalistic/ real-life contexts, eg. the Wason and Johnson-Laird problem.
Different strategies are available used in these two contexts. (Lave, Carraher) Carraher & Schliemann, 1982, 1983, studied fruit-vendors in Brazil. Found effective but idisyncratic strategies: eg. 12-year old coconut vendor with a Grade 3 education, asked him for 10 coconuts (price of one coconut was 35). The vendor's calculation: ``Three will be 105; with three more that will be 210. I need four more. That is ... 315 ... 350'' i.e. (3 x 35) + 105 + 105 + 35.
Lave (Cognition in Practice, 1988) ``... these ... studies ... challenge theoretical boundaries between activity and its setting, between cognitive, bodily, and social forms of activity, between information and value, [and] between problems and solutions'' (p. 3).
SitCog sees problem-solving strategies not as fixed attributes of either individuals or problems; it sees them emerge from an interaction between an individual's knowledge and the context in which that knowledge is to be applied ... implies a web of social and activity systems within which authentic practice takes shape.
```Situated'...does not imply that something is concrete and particular, or that it is not generalizable, or not imaginary. It implies that a given social practice is multiply interconnected with other aspects of ongoing social processes in activity systems at many levels of particularity and generality.''
- Lave, J. (1991). Situated Learning in Communities of Practice In L.B. Resnick, J.M. Levine and S.D. Teasley (Eds). Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition Washington, DC: American Pscyhological Association. pp. 63-82.
Examples in Hutchins, E (1995) Cognition in the Wild Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
The symbolic-situated debate can be seen as a contemporary form of the rationalist-empiricist debate. Similarity of SitCog with behaviourism: avoid mental constructs, focus on environment and actions/ behaviour.
Two traditions of SitCog:
Type 1. Focus on collaboration, community participation, cultural construction (anthropologists, ethnographist, critical theorists). Vygotsky-inspired socio-historical school: Michael Cole, Jean Lave, Rogoff, Lucy Suchman.
Contrasts with the low-level responses dealt with by behaviourism, as also with Piaget's preoccupation with the individual and his/her interaction with the purely physical environment. ``Situated Action'' ``Situated Learning''
Type 2. Retains ip/symbolic AI's focus on individual mind and in that sense contrasts with behaviourism (also adds neural and physical embodiment - Clancy) In contrast to symbolic AI, this version of SitCog looks at lay knowledge rather than professional knowledge and puts practice before theory. (psychologist, linguists, generally AI-inspired cognitive scientists) Allan Collins, John Seeley Brown, Donald Norman, Bill Clancey ``Situated Cognition''
|Theory||Data||Learning is||Loc. of structs||Unit of analysis|
|Behaviourism||Discrete events||skill acquisition||Envt||Individual|
|Symbolic Cog||Discrete info||concepts and strats||Mind||Individual|
|SitCog||Holistic context||effective participn||E+M||Individual (in type 1)|
|Community (in type 2)|
Problems with the situated approach: